Chapter 1-3


While reading through Chapter One of this book i learned a lot of interesting information about Computer Crime

Privilege escalation – is the process of obtaining personal information so that the perpetrator can pretend to be someone else.

  • Malware (Trojan horse, virus, worm, logic bomb, rootkit, etc.)
  • Phishing – is any process designed to elicit personal data from the targeted victim.
  • Social engineering
  • Session hijacking
  • hacking – involves trying to compromise a system’s security in order to gain unauthorized access.
  • Spyware – also has the goal of obtaining personal data directly from the target machine.
  • Password cracking
  • Denial of service
  • These are known as computer-security breach which are a.k.a computer crimes.

    Here are a few more computer crimes this chapter announces.

    Identity theft – is the process of obtaining personal information so that the perpetrator can pretend to be someone else.

  • Cyber stalking/harassment
  • Unauthorized access to computer systems or data
  • Fraud
  • Non-access computer crimes
  • All very interesting things I have learned about.

    CHAPTER 2:

    Chapter 2 of this book was a recall on the history of computer crime in america. This chapter was quite interesting as well.

    Where to begin….? Many in the hacking community object to the term hacker being used in the media to denote illegal intrusions onto systems. In the hacking community, a hacker is one who experiments with a system in order to learn more about it. This has led to a variety of terms being used to clarify the individual’s actual motive and activities. Such as A hacker is a person who wishes to understand a given system in depth, often through reverse-engineering techniques. A cracker is a person who uses those techniques to intrude on systems with malicious intent. A phreaker is a person who is hacking or cracking phone systems. In the past two decades, it has become more common to refer to white-hat, gray-hat, and black-hat hackers. A white-hat hacker is not conducting illegal activities, he is merely learning about systems. A white-hat hacker may actually be performing an authorized intrusion test of a system. A black-hat hacker is conducting illegal activities; these are the people traditionally associated with computer crimes. A gray-hat hacker may break laws, but usually without malicious intent.

    I found all of these terms quite informational and informative.

    What I also learned from this chapter was, while phone phreaking grew in popularity in the 1970s, most of the computer-related crime was about physical damage to computer systems, such as the following examples:

  • 1970—At the University of Wisconsin, a bomb is detonated, killing one person and injuring three more. The explosion also destroys $16 million of computer data stored on site.

  • 1970—At New York University, a group of students place fire-bombs on top of an Atomic Energy Commission computer. This incident was connected with an attempt to free a jailed Black Panther.

  • 1973—In Melbourne, Australia, protestors against the United States’ involvement in Vietnam shoot an American firm’s computer with a double-barreled shotgun.

  • 1978—At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, a protestor destroys an unused IBM computer using various tools as a protest against the NAVSTAR satellite navigation system. The protestor was concerned that the navigation system was designed to give the U.S. a first-strike capability.

  • The last piece of information that tickled the back of my neck was, in 2005, hackers attempted to transfer $420 million from a bank in London. This would have been the largest electronic heist in history. What makes this case most interesting is that police were able to stop the theft. The perpetrators had managed to get keyloggers on the computers of bank employees, and thus gain usernames and passwords, allowing them to access bank systems. A keylogger is a program that resides on a computer and simply records key strokes. That data is then either retrieved directly by the perpetrator, or the keylogger can be configured to automatically send the data to some predetermined IP address. In a typical scheme, the culprits will mask the keylogger in some other software, thus creating a Trojan horse. A Trojan horse is software that appears to have some useful purpose but really delivers some malicious payload. When users download what they believe is a useful program or utility, the keylogger is also delivered. The people committing this crime have already established an IP address to send the data to. Often, this is an unsecure server belonging to some unsuspecting third party that has been hacked and subverted for this purpose. Then, as the data comes streaming into the server, the person responsible for creating the keylogger can scan the data for useful information. Spyware is a growing problem on the Internet. It is becoming one of the most serious threats to computer security. This case illustrates just how damaging spyware can be.


    Chapter 3:

    Chapter 3 dives into more laws that have been passed due to computer perpatraitors. Such as The Ribicoff Bill was the first proposal for federal computer-crime legislation in the United States that would specifically prohibit the misuse of computers. The bill was referred to as Federal Computer Systems Protection Act of 1977. While this bill did not pass, it set the stage for future computer-related legislation, and it showed that at least some members of Congress were contemplating the dangers of computer crime as early as the 1970s.

    The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986. This law is perhaps one of the most fundamental computer-crime laws, and merits careful study by anyone interested in the field of computer crime. The primary reason to consider this legislation as pivotal is that it was the first significant federal legislation designed to provide some protection againstcomputer-based crimes. Prior to this legislation, courts relied on common-law definitions and adaptations of legislation concerning traditional, non-computer crimes in order to prosecute computer crimes.

    The Electronics Communications Privacy Act of 1986. This piece of legislation is a critical one in regard to computer crimes. One reason for this is because it was one of the earliest laws to specifically address computer crimes. Prior to this act there were few laws at state or federal levels that specifically addressed computer crime. The most obvious and notable exception is the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984. The fact that these two laws were enacted within a period of two years marks a turning point incomputer crime. Legislative bodies were beginning to take computer crime seriously and to address those crimes by passing relevant legislation.

    The Communications Decency Act of 1996. This was the first legislative attempt to curtail Internet pornography. The Communications Decency Act was actually part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, specifically title V. One of the main focuses of the act was to reduce children’s access to pornography. To quote from the act itself, any person who: knowingly (A) uses an interactive computer service to send to a specific person or persons under 18 years of age, or (B) uses any interactivecomputer service to display in a manner available to a person under 18 years of age, any comment, request, suggestion, proposal, image, or other communication that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs.

    No Electonic Theft Act of 1997. What is commonly called the No Electronic Theft Act of 1997, known also as the NET Act, was House Resolution 2265 signed into law by President Clinton on December 16, 1997. The purpose of this law is to provide law enforcement and prosecutors with the tools to fight copyright violations on the Internet. Under this law, electronic copyright infringement can carry a maximum penalty of three years in prison and a $250,000 fine. This law made it a federal crime to reproduce, distribute, or share copies of electronic copyrighted works. This means not only software, but also music, videos, or electronic versions of printed material. Under this law, it is a crime to distribute such copyrighted material, even if the distributor does so without any financial gain.

    There is a bunch more laws but this is the last one I will type about. Digital Millennium Copyright Act. This act, signed into law on October 28, 1998, frequently called the DMCA, focused primarily on methods for circumventing access control. Basically, this law made it illegal to attempt to circumvent copy-protection technologies. Manufacturers of CDs, DVDs, and other media frequently introduce technological measures that prevent unauthorized copying of the media in order to protect their copyrighted material.

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